A sanitary protection zone is the area around a nuclear installation and facilities intended for radwaste management, where the level of human exposure under normal operation may exceed the dose limit quota for the population.
The status of the legal regime for the establishment and functioning of the sanitary protection zones of nuclear power plants is regulated by the Law of Ukraine “On the Use of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Safety”, in particular, Article 45 of the Law establishes a special regime of the territory at the locations of nuclear installations and facilities intended for radwaste management:
- at the locations of a nuclear installation or facility intended for radwaste management, the sanitary protection zone and radiation control area shall be established;
- settlement is prohibited at the sanitary protection zone, restrictions are imposed on production activities that do not do not deal with a nuclear installation or facilities intended for radwaste management, and the radiation situation is monitored;
- at the sanitary protection zone, it is forbidden to place residential houses and public buildings, child-care centres, health and leisure institutions, as well as industrial enterprises, public catering facilities, auxiliary and other structures not related to the activities of a nuclear installation or facility intended for radwaste management;
- the use of land and water bodies located at the sanitary protection zone for national economic purposes is possible only with the permission of the state regulatory body for nuclear and radiation safety, by agreement with the operating organization, subject to the mandatory radiological control of the output.
The procedure of the approval by the utility is determined by the "Regulations on the approval procedure by SE “NNEGC “Energoatom” of the intention to use the land and water bodies located at the NPP sanitary protection zones for economic purposes, for legal entities and individuals-entrepreneurs".