Zaporizhzhia NPP (ZNPP) is situated in the steppe zone of Ukraine on the banks of the Kakhovka reservoir. It is located in Kamensko-Dneprovsky district of Zaporizhzhia region.
Satellite town - Energodar with a population of about 54 000 people is situated 5 km from ZNPP. Other major settlements near ZNPP are Manganets (about 50 000 people) and Nikopol (about 122 000 people). In total, 59 settlements of Zaporizhzhia, Dnepropetrovsk and Kherson regions, where about 380 000 people live, are located in a 30 km radiation control area of ZNPP; the population density is 135 individuals/ km2 (the average value for Ukraine is 75 individuals/ km2).
The large industrial complexes are in operation in this region.
The climate of the area of ZNPP location is moderately continental with torrid summer and unstable dry winter. The average annual air temperature is 10.9 °C. The coldest month of the year is January, with an average temperature of minus 1.5 ° C. The lowest temperature is observed in January and February; the absolute minimum is minus 34 °С. The hottest month is July, with an average temperature of 24,4 °C. The highest temperature is observed in June-August, the absolute maximum is about 40 °C.
The fogs in the area of ZNPP are observed mainly in the cold season (October - March); on the average, 48-50 days with the formation of fogs are observed per year. The ice-covered ground is possible in winter.
In the winter season, the winds of the south-west and north-east direction are the most frequent, in other seasons the most frequent are the winds of the north-east direction. The average monthly wind speed is 3-5 m/s. The number of days with strong winds (more than 10.8 m / s) during the year is 17 days, mostly in the cold season. The maximum observed wind speed is 24-28 m/s with wind gusts up to 40 m/s and more.
Due to the arid climate in summer, there are significant risks of steppe and forest fires in the radiation control area of ZNPP. There are no large forest areas in the immediate vicinity of ZNPP, therefore the negative effects of forest fires are limited.
ZNPP is located on the Ukrainian Fundamental Crystalline Formation, which is calm from a seismic and tectonic point of view. The frequency of earthquakes of magnitude 6 according to the MSK-64 scale is 1 time in 1000 years, their frequency of magnitude 7 is 1 time in 5000 years.
ZNPP and the town of Energodar are located on the banks of the Kakhovka reservoir of the Dnipro river. Under normal operating conditions of the hydraulic structures of the Dnipro cascade there is no risk of flooding above the dam of the Kakhovka reservoir. Even in the hypothetical case of sequential destruction of upstream dams and the intact Kakhovka dam, the key infrastructures of ZNPP will not suffer from flooding (damage to local power grids, roads and railways and flooding of some settlements within the radiation control area are possible).
The summer period in the area of ZNPP location is quite hot; therefore there is a risk of overheating and thermal shock.
The fogs, which are observed mainly in the cold season, increase the risk of road traffic accidents.
The winter period in the area of ZNPP location is characterized by temperatures below zero; short-term severe frosts, precipitation in the form of snow, ice-covered ground are possible. Accordingly, in the winter period there are risks of hypothermia; snow or ice significantly increase the risk of injury due to a fall and a road traffic accident.
The thunderstorms in the area of ZNPP location are observed mainly from April to September, in winter they are very rare. The average number of thunderstorms per year is 15-20. During a thunderstorm there is a risk of lightning stroke, which increases significantly while staying in the field or steppe.
Under ZNPP normal operating conditions, the risks of hazardous radiation exposure exist only for personnel performing radiation hazardous work, but if they comply with the radiation safety rules, these risks are absent. When performing other works and during off-hours there are no risks of hazardous exposure under ZNPP normal operating conditions. In case of an accident at ZNPP, and depending on the nature of the accident, there is a risk of radioactive contamination of the area and excessive exposure. The observed contribution of ZNPP to air, water and soil pollution does not exceed permissible levels and is not significant compared to other sources of pollution.
Other powerful industrial enterprises are located in the 30 km zone of Zaporizhzhia NPP. East of the ZNPP, within radiation control area, "Dneproenergo" Zaporizhzhia thermal power plant, this is one of the largest air pollutants in Zaporizhzhia region. The water decontaminating structure that meets the needs of the Energodar town and ZNPP uses liquid chlorine. In the town of Dneprorudnoye (30 km east of ZNPP) there is an industrial zone for the production of metal and reinforced concrete structures. On the right bank of the Kakhovka reservoir there is the Nikopol-Manganese industrial site with steel-rolling and tube-rolling production. This is one of the most polluted areas in the Dnipropetrovsk region and in general in Ukraine. The mining industry is represented by mining of manganese and iron ore (Belogorsk banks). Potential sources of highly toxic gases in the territories adjacent to the ZNPP are absent.
The Dniepro River and the Kakhovka reservoir are substantially polluted, and these are under the influence of intensive eutrophication processes in the summertime due to emissions of untreated or insufficiently treated industrial and municipal sewage water.
Ukraine is one of the countries most affected by HIV/AIDS in Europe. Generally in Ukraine the prevalence of HIV and AIDS infection is 323.7 and 75.2 individuals, respectively, per 100 thousand of population. In Zaporizhzhia region these rates are lower, and they are respectively 211.9 and 59.7 individuals per 100 thousand. However, the town of Energodar belongs to the settlements of Zaporizhzhia region, where HIV/AIDS incidence rate ratios are higher than the regional average rates. It should be noted that the main ways of HIV and AIDS infection are sexually transmissible (57.8%) and through injecting drugs (23.9%). The use of condoms during sexual intercourse and disposable syringes for any injections significantly reduces the risk of HIV/AIDS infection.
Ukraine belongs to the 3rd category of European countries with a high tuberculosis rate - on an average in Ukraine it is 59.5 individuals per 100 thousand of population. At the same time, there is interdependence between the spread of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS and the spread of drug addiction. In Zaporizhzhia region, the incidence of tuberculosis is even higher than the national average rate and is 64.4 individuals per 100 thousand of population. The precautions mentioned above, as well as the observance of hygiene rules, reduce the risk of tuberculosis infection, and timely diagnostics simplify its treatment.
The causative agent of cholera is found in the waters of the warm Ukrainian regions every summer, but cholera epidemic has not been registered since 1926. In the south-eastern regions of the country, including Zaporizhzhia region, individual group ictuses are recorded. The last cholera ictus in Ukraine was registered in Mariupol, Donetsk Region, in 2011. Rotavirus infection ictuses (an acute virus disease characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, weakness, fever) are recorded annually during or after influenza epidemics. Cholera, rotavirus infection, etc. refer to the so-called "dirty hands disease". By following the simple hygiene rules, the risks of such diseases can be sufficiently reduced.
Every year, in the cold season, the number of diseases of acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI), in particular, influenza, increases within Ukraine. The influenza often has an epidemic character. The risks of acute respiratory viral infections in Energodar are comparable to the risks for other towns with 50-100 thousand inhabitants, and specifically for ZNPP - to the risks for any powerful native enterprise. Influenza is an airborne disease easily transmitted from person to person; as a rule, the radius of the infection zone is 2 meters. The most frequent complication of the influenza is pneumonia, which sometimes in 4-5 days only can cause death of a patient. Cardiac distress also often develops as a result of influenza complications. Therefore, when the first symptoms of ARVI appear (elevated body temperature, sore throat, cough, runny nose, muscle pain), a sick person must stay at home.
The area of ZNPP location refers to the zone where some separate epidemics places for ixodic ticks are situated. In case of ixodic tick bite the tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease) and tick-borne viral encephalitis are potential. Ixodic ticks are active in spring and summer seasons, they can be found in forests, meadows, pastures, park recreation areas and public gardens. The area of ZNPP location does not belong to those where it is recommended to complete a course of vaccinations against tick-borne viral encephalitis; therefore the risk of this disease is low. However, for walks in the forest, it is recommended to wear long-sleeved clothing and a hat, and after visiting the forest, it is recommended to conduct an examination of the body in order to identify ticks.
Ukraine traditionally belongs to countries with a high level of alcohol consumption. The death rate caused by alcohol action is 27.2 individuals per 100 thousand of population. The main categories of fatal cases are alcoholic cardiomyopathy (diffuse damage to the heart muscle due to prolonged alcohol consumption), occasional alcohol poisoning, alcoholic liver diseases, mental and behavior disabilities due to alcohol consumption. In addition to these direct effects, excessive alcohol consumption significantly increases the risks associated with road traffic accidents, drowning, falling from height, home traumatism, etc.
Zaporizhzhia region belongs to a number of the most criminogenic regions of Ukraine regarding the commission of crimes related to drug trafficking. Non-medical drug consumption leads to numerous suicides, home and industrial traumatism, and direct deaths caused by excessive consumption of drugs. Almost all drug-dependents who use opiates are sick with hepatitis, their significant number suffer from AIDS and syphilis.
The food-borne intoxications are the diseases that occur when eating food that contains harmful microorganisms or toxic substances. In Ukraine, about 30% of accidents are intoxications with low-quality food products. The number of food –borne poisoning increases in the summertime due to the high air temperature.
In Ukraine, including the Zaporizhzhia region, the collection and use of wild-growing mushrooms are traditional. Annually, mushroom poisoning is recorded, sometimes it is fatal. Most of the poisonings are caused by the use of poisonous gill funguses (first of all, Amanita phalloides), which are mistaken for edible. An intoxication can be also caused by edible mushrooms that have not undergone proper heat treatment or have grown in contaminated areas or along highways.
Zaporizhzhia region belongs to the regions of Ukraine with a relatively high level of crime. An additional factor in the deterioration of criminality is the joint forces operation, which takes place in the neighboring Donetsk region. A large number of refugees and displaced persons, including those with a criminal record, the deterioration of the socio-economic situation, the growth of unemployment, and a large number of illegal weapons lead to a worsening of the criminal situation.
Zaporizhzhia NPP and its satellite town of Energodar are located near the Kakhovka reservoir. Accordingly, there are risks of drowning in the violation of the rules of behavior in water in summer or on ice in winter.
The increase in the number of vehicles and road users increases the probability of road traffic accidents; therefore the number of people who could potentially suffer in car accidents is growing. In Ukraine, one of the highest death rates in Europe in traffic accidents is observed: 13.5 individuals per 100 thousand of population. Within the country, Zaporizhzhia region belongs to the regions with an average level of road traffic accidents. The population of the region is 3.9% of the total population of Ukraine, while it accounts for about 3.7% of the total number of road traffic accidents. The risks of home traumatism in Energodar are typical for the towns with 50-100 thousand inhabitants; there are no special regional risk factors.