SFDS radiation impact
SFDS radiation impact on the region atmosphere
During normal SFDS operation, radioactive release into the atmosphere from the VSC-WWER system is absent.
During the operation, safe operation limits were not reached;
Design limit deviations were absent;
Radiation monitoring of SFDS site shows that radionuclide contents in well water, sewage water, atmospheric precipitation corresponds to the natural background and global contamination level of the region.
Absolute content of long-lived radionuclides in the atmosphere shows global character of their origin. Evaluation of radio-ecological state of the region hydrosphere in a lot of cases was justified by indication properties of living organisms of water systems. Based on different evaluation methodologies of water quality of the largest object in the region – Kakhovka water reservoir – and based on the results of water radioactivity it appears that the level of radioactive contamination of the region atmosphere is much less than the acceptable one.
SFDS radiation impact on surface ecological systems
During normal SFDS operation contamination of ground eco-systems by radionuclides is not expected.
In spite of landscape predisposition of the soil and vegetation of the left-bank of the ZNPP region to the radioactivity accumulation, data of many years monitoring prove correspondence of the radionuclide content in the soil-vegetation layer of the region to the levels of global contamination and background levels.
At the same time, ZNPP is planning to install the following radiation monitoring outside the SFDS site:
Public exposure dose rates
Radiation impact of ZNPP SFDS during normal operation on the region public is excluded. Radiation impact of ZNPP SFDS during design-basis accident is also excluded. Possible radiation impact of ZNPP SFDS on public in case of unlikely beyond-design basis accidents will not exceed the limits acceptable for normal plant operation.
Generation of liquid and solid radwaste
Due to passive character of the SFDS system, during transportation and storage of spent fuel at SFDS site no radioactive waste is generated. Liquid radwaste generated during decontamination of the reloading container in their volume do not exceed similar amounts of radwaste during decontamination of earlier used container TK-13. During the year, radwaste generated at the power units will not be more than 3,0 м3 at total activity smaller than 100 milli-curie.
Heat and moisture releases
Each NPP reactor develops heat capacity equal approximately 3000 MWt. From them, 1000 MWt is supplied to the consumers as electrical power and 2000 MWt of heat capacity is dispersed to the environment via sprinkling ponds, cooling towers and cooling pond. Thus, total heat load of the 6 ZNPP units has about 12 000 MWt capacity. Spent fuel stays in spent fuel ponds and its heat is constantly removed to the environment. That is why storage of these fuel assemblies does not lead to any additional heat generation; it leads only to redistribution of the heat. Only insignificant part of total heat generated by the NPP is redistributed because even with full SFDS site – 9000 spent fuel assemblies, each is generating not more than 1 kWt of heat. Share of redistributed heat is less than 0,1% of the total NPP heat load; it practically has no additional load on the environment.
Water intake for make-up of water in technological cycles
Additional water intake for SFDS operation is not required.
Alienation of lands
Additional alienation of lands is not required. SFDS site and all the technological operations are done on the existing NPP site.